Spring集成JUnit单元测试框架

一.JUnit介绍

JUnit是Java中最有名的单元测试框架,用于编写和运行可重复的测试,多数Java的开发环境都已经集成了JUnit作为单元测试的工具。好的单元测试能极大的提高开发效率和代码质量。

测试类命名规则:被测试类+Test,如UserServiceTest
测试用例命名规则:test+用例方法,如testGet

Maven导入junit、sprint-test 、json-path相关测试包,并配置maven-suerfire-plugin插件,编辑pom.xml

<dependencies>
<!-- Test Unit -->
<dependency>
<groupId>junit</groupId>
<artifactId>junit</artifactId>
<version>4.12</version>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-test</artifactId>
<version>4.3.10.RELEASE</version>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<!-- Json断言测试 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>com.jayway.jsonpath</groupId>
<artifactId>json-path</artifactId>
<version>2.4.0</version>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
<build>
<plugins>
<!-- 单元测试插件 -->
<plugin>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
<version>2.20</version>
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.surefire</groupId>
<artifactId>surefire-junit4</artifactId>
<version>2.20</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
<configuration>
<!-- 是否跳过测试 -->
<skipTests>false</skipTests>
<!-- 排除测试类 -->
<excludes>
<exclude>**/Base*</exclude>
</excludes>
</configuration>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>

二.Service层测试示例

创建Service层测试基类,新建BaseServiceTest.java

// 配置Spring中的测试环境
@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class) // 指定Spring的配置文件路径
@ContextConfiguration(locations = {"classpath*:/spring/applicationContext.xml"}) // 测试类开启事务,需要指定事务管理器,默认测试完成后,数据库操作自动回滚
@Transactional(transactionManager = "transactionManager") // 指定数据库操作不回滚,可选
@Rollback(value = false) public class BaseServiceTest {
}

测试UserService类,新建测试类UserServiceTest.java

public class UserServiceTest extends BaseServiceTest { private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(UserServiceTest.class);

@Resource private UserService userService;

@Test public void testGet(){
UserDO userDO = userService.get(1);

Assert.assertNotNull(userDO);
LOGGER.info(userDO.getUsername()); // 增加验证断言
Assert.assertEquals("testGet faield", "Google", userDO.getUsername());
}
}

三.Controller层测试示示例

创建Controller层测试基类,新建BaseControllerTest.java

// 配置Spring中的测试环境
@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class) // 指定测试环境使用的ApplicationContext是WebApplicationContext类型的 // value指定web应用的根
@WebAppConfiguration(value = "src/main/webapp") // 指定Spring容器层次和配置文件路径
@ContextHierarchy({
@ContextConfiguration(name = "parent", locations = {"classpath*:/spring/applicationContext.xml"}),
@ContextConfiguration(name = "child", locations = {"classpath*:/spring/applicationContext_mvc.xml"})
}) // 测试类开启事务,需要指定事务管理器,默认测试完成后,数据库操作自动回滚
@Transactional(transactionManager = "transactionManager") // 指定数据库操作不回滚,可选
@Rollback(value = false) public class BaseControllerTest {
}

测试IndexController类,新建测试类IndexControllerTest.java

public class IndexControllerTest extends BaseControllerTest { private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(UserServiceTest.class); // 注入webApplicationContext
@Resource private WebApplicationContext webApplicationContext; private MockMvc mockMvc; // 初始化mockMvc,在每个测试方法前执行
@Before public void setup(){ this.mockMvc = MockMvcBuilders.webAppContextSetup(this.webApplicationContext).build();
}

@Test public void testIndex() throws Exception { /** * mockMvc.perform()执行一个请求
* get("/server/get")构造一个请求
* andExpect()添加验证规则
* andDo()添加一个结果处理器
* andReturn()执行完成后返回结果 */ MvcResult result = mockMvc.perform(get("/server/get")
.param("id", "1"))
.andExpect(MockMvcResultMatchers.status().isOk())
.andExpect(MockMvcResultMatchers.jsonPath("$.username").value("Google"))
.andDo(print())
.andReturn();

LOGGER.info(result.getResponse().getContentAsString()); // 增加验证断言
Assert.assertNotNull(result.getResponse().getContentAsString());
}
}

四.执行单元测试

工程测试目录结构如下,运行mvn test命令,自动执行maven-suerfire-plugin插件

Spring集成JUnit单元测试框架

Spring集成JUnit单元测试框架

执行结果

Spring集成JUnit单元测试框架

五.异常情况

执行测试用例时可能抛BeanCreationNotAllowedException异常

[11 20:47:18,133 WARN ] [Thread-3] (AbstractApplicationContext.java:994) - Exception thrown from ApplicationListener handling ContextClosedEvent
org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationNotAllowedException: Error creating bean with name 'sessionFactory': Singleton bean creation not allowed while singletons of this factory are in destruction (Do not request a bean from a BeanFactory in a destroy method implementation!)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:216)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:302)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:202)
at org.springframework.context.event.AbstractApplicationEventMulticaster.retrieveApplicationListeners(AbstractApplicationEventMulticaster.java:235)
at org.springframework.context.event.AbstractApplicationEventMulticaster.getApplicationListeners(AbstractApplicationEventMulticaster.java:192)
at org.springframework.context.event.SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.multicastEvent(SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.java:128)
 <bean id="lifecycleProcessor" class="org.springframework.context.support.DefaultLifecycleProcessor">
<property name="timeoutPerShutdownPhase" value="10000"/>
</bean>
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